How do you make microemulsions?
Microemulsion systems were prepared by mixing oil with the mixture of surfactant and cosurfactant, and water was added precisely into oily phases with magnetic stirring (300 r/min) at 37°C.
What is the difference between an emulsion and a microemulsion?
The difference between microemulsions and emulsions is that the later are opaque mixtures of two immiscible liquids, thermodynamically unstable and usually require the application of high torque mechanical mixing or homogenization to produce dispersed droplets in the range of 0.2–25 mm.
What is micro emulsion method?
Microemulsion polymerization is a complex heterogeneous process where transport of monomers, free radicals and other species (such as chain transfer agent, co-surfactant and inhibitors) between the aqueous and organic phases, takes place.
Why do microemulsions form spontaneously?
Self-microemulsifying systems spontaneously form with even mild agitation (so the energy input is negligible). Systems that emulsify spontaneously typically require a higher surfactant-to-oil ratio than emulsions that can be made with sufficient energy input. (Again, using an o/w emulsion as an example.)
What are the different types of microemulsions?
There are three kinds of microemulsions: oil dispersed in water (o/w), water dispersed in oil (w/o), and bicontinuous.
How do you do multiple emulsion?
Multiple emulsions of the W/O/W type are generally prepared by a two-step procedure: a preformed W/O emulsion is added slowly, with stirring, to an aqueous solution containing a hydrophilic emulsifying agent.
How do you make a nanoemulsion?
The nanoemulsion can be prepared by both high energy and low energy methods. High energy method includes high-pressure homogenization, microfluidization, and ultrasonication whereas low energy methods include the phase inversion emulsification method and the self-nanoemulsification method.
What is micro emulsion example?
They are prepared by simple mixing of the components and do not require specific preparation conditions. There are three kinds of microemulsions: oil dispersed in water (o/w), water dispersed in oil (w/o), and bicontinuous.
What is micro emulsion method for nanoparticle synthesis?
Controllable particles sizes of starch nanoparticles were synthesized via a precipitation in water-in-oil microemulsion approach. Microemulsion method offers the advantages of ultralow interfacial tension, large interfacial area, and being thermodynamically stable and affords monodispersed nanoparticles.
How many types of microemulsions are there?
There are three kinds of microemulsions: oil dispersed in water (o/w), water dispersed in oil (w/o), and bicontinuous. The presence of o/w droplets is likely to be a characteristic of microemulsions where the amount of oil is low.
Which emulsion is mainly used for taste masking purpose?
Cyclodextrins have been extensively used for taste-masking bitter drugs by forming inclusion complexes with the drug molecule.
What is the purpose of formulating multiple emulsion?
Multiple emulsions have also been employed as intermediate step in the microencapsulation process and are the systems of increasing interest for the oral delivery of hydrophilic drugs, which are unstable in gastrointestinal tract like proteins and peptides.
What is the example of multiple emulsion?
1 Introduction. A Multiple emulsion is one in which the dispersed droplets contain even finer droplets of a different phase. Two types of multiple emulsions may exist including an oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O) emulsion and a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion.
What is a nano emulsifier?
Nanoemulsions are nano-sized emulsions, which are manufactured for improving the delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients. These are the thermodynamically stable isotropic system in which two immiscible liquids are mixed to form a single phase by means of an emulsifying agent, i.e., surfactant and co-surfactant.
What is Cosurfactant?
Definition of cosurfactant : a chemical substance that is used in addition to a surfactant to improve its performance especially : a second surfactant that is used in conjunction with a primary surfactant.
How do you make a stable emulsion?
To create a stable emulsion and stop your emulsion from separating, you need to add an emulsifier. An emulsifier has a hydrophilic (water liking) end and a lipophilic (oil liking) end. The hydrophilic end is attracted to the aqueous phase and lipophilic end to the oil phase, and this binds them together.
How do you stabilize emulsion?
Emulsion can be stabilized by increasing the repulsion between the dispersed phase i.e., by increasing the electrostatic repulsion (which is long range) or steric repulsion (short range).
How are microemulsions and emulsions made?
Both microemulsions and emulsions can be made as water-in-oil (w/o) or o/w, depending on the properties of the surfactant. The choice of the dispersed and continuous phases for microemulsion formulations is based on the hydrophilicity of the drug in consideration.
How to characterize microemulsions?
Characterization of microemulsions necessarily begins with the elucidation of the phase behavior, where, in the most simple form, oil, water, and surfactant are mixed in different molar ratios, and the formed phases are tracked [ 3 ]. A generic phase diagram resulting from such analysis is shown in Figure 1.
What are microemulsions and their industrial applications?
Microemulsions also have industrial applications, one of them being the synthesis of polymers. Microemulsion polymerization is a complex heterogeneous process where transport of monomers, free radicals and other species (such as chain transfer agent, co-surfactant and inhibitors) between the aqueous and organic phases, takes place.
How to prepare microemulsion from lipids?
The formulation is prepared above the melting point of the lipid to form the microemulsion. Lipid (fatty acid or glycerides) is dissolved; surfactant, cosurfactant, and active ingredient solution in water is heated to the same temperature and the resulting mixture is added to the lipids.