## How do you tell which runway is which?

Runway numbers are determined by rounding the compass bearing of one runway end to the nearest 10 degrees and truncating the last digit, meaning runways are numbered from 1 to 36—as per the diagram below. The opposite end of the runway always differs by 180 degrees, so it’s numbered 18 higher or lower.

How do I activate PCL?

To activate the PCL lighting system, the pilot clicks their radio transmit button up to seven times in a 5 second period. Seven clicks will put the lights on a maximum instensity. Once the lights are on the pilot can then click a further 5 clicks to reduce the lights to medium intensity, and 3 clicks for low intensity.

### How do you read a runway light?

When viewed from the landing threshold, the runway centerline lights are white until the last 3,000 feet of the runway. The white lights begin to alternate with red for the next 2,000 feet, and for the last 1,000 feet of the runway, all centerline lights are red.

Is PAPI part of ALS?

Lighting Systems – Precision Approach Path Indicators (PAPI) Approach Light Systems ( ALS ) provide the basic means to transition from instrument flight to visual flight for landing. Operational requirements dictate the sophistication and configuration of the approach light system for a particular runway.

#### How do pilots identify the runway strip?

Runway numbers and letters are determined from the approach direction. The runway number is the whole number nearest one‐tenth the magnetic azimuth of the centerline of the runway, measured clockwise from the magnetic north.

Can pilots control runway lights?

Many nontower airports have pilot-controlled lighting (PCL), which allows pilots to turn on the runway lights and to select the desired intensity. Within a five-mile radius of the airport, pilots activate PCL by keying the microphone button with the radio tuned to Unicom frequency.

## What is Unicom frequency used for?

UNICOM is a nongovernment air/ground radio communication station which may provide airport information at public use airports where there is no tower or FSS. On pilot request, UNICOM stations may provide pilots with weather information, wind direction, the recommended runway, or other necessary information.

Where can I find Lahso information?

To conduct LAHSO, pilots should become familiar with all available information concerning LAHSO at their destination airport. Pilots should have, readily available, the published ALD and runway slope information for all LAHSO runway combinations at each airport of intended landing.

### How do pilots identify runways?

When clouds surround an airport, pilots have been able to find the path to the runway for decades by using an Instrument Landing System, or ILS. Ground-based transmitters project one radio beam straight down the middle of the runway, and another angled up from the runway threshold at a gentle three degrees.

Why are runway lights blue?

Airport taxiway lights are always blue. These lights guide the flight crew and vehicle drivers in low visibility conditions, which includes nighttime operations. In the dark, humans best see the color blue green, which is why taxiway edge lights are blue and centerline lighting is green.

#### Is there a runway 0?

A leading zero, for example in “runway zero-six” or “runway zero-one-left”, is included for all ICAO and some U.S. military airports (such as Edwards Air Force Base). However, most U.S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero as required by FAA regulation.

What are runway markers?

Runway Holding Position Markings. For runways, these markings indicate where aircraft MUST STOP when approaching a runway. They consist of four yellow lines, two solid and two dashed, spaced six or twelve inches apart, and extending across the width of the taxiway or runway.

## Are runway end identifier lights required?

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) recommends that: Runway threshold identification lights should be installed: at the threshold of a non-precision approach runway when additional threshold conspicuity is necessary or where it is not practicable to provide other approach lighting aids; and.

Can you accept LAHSO?

You can accept a LAHSO clearance provided that you, as the pilot-in-command, can determine that the aircraft can safely land and stop within the Available Landing Distance (ALD).

### What do the lights mean on a runway end identifier?

Runway End Identifier Lighting As you make your approach to landing, you will see a single runway end identifier light (REIL) on either side of the end of the runway. These flashing green lights face the approach end of the runway to help pilots identify where to land and to validate that they are not landing short of the runway.

Where are approach lights installed on a runway?

They are installed from the approach end of the runway extending outwards towards the direction of arriving aircraft. Operational requirements dictate the sophistication and configuration of the approach light system for a particular runway.

#### What are the different types of runway edge lighting?

Runway edge lighting can be classified as either high, medium, or low intensity, with high and medium-intensity lighting being adjustable and having the capability to vary in intensity.

How far down the runway does the runway light go?

These lights start 100 feet before the runway threshold and continue 3,000 feet down the runway or to the midpoint (whichever is less).