What are the reasons for the emergence and reemergence of infections?
Changes in global population demographics and distribution.
What are the 4 5 stages of infectious diseases?
The five periods of disease (sometimes referred to as stages or phases) include the incubation, prodromal, illness, decline, and convalescence periods (Figure 2). The incubation period occurs in an acute disease after the initial entry of the pathogen into the host (patient).
What is emerging and reemerging infection?
PIP: Emerging infectious diseases are diseases of infectious origin whose incidence in humans has increased within the past decades or threatens to increase in the near future. The reappearance of a previously known infection after a period of disappearance or decline in incidence is known as re-emergence.
What are the 4 causes of infectious diseases?
Infectious diseases can be caused by:
- Bacteria. These one-cell organisms are responsible for illnesses such as strep throat, urinary tract infections and tuberculosis.
- Viruses. Even smaller than bacteria, viruses cause a multitude of diseases ranging from the common cold to AIDS.
How can we prevent the emergence and reemergence of diseases?
The objectives of Preventing Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Strategy for the 21st Century are organized under four goals: surveillance and response, applied research, infrastructure and training, and prevention and control.
What are five 5 factors that can increase an individual’s susceptibility to pathogens?
We all have different susceptibility Multiple innate factors (e.g., age, nutritional status, genetics, immune competency, and pre-existing chronic diseases) and external variables (e.g., concurrent drug therapy) influence the overall susceptibility of a person exposed to a virus.
What are the three phases of infection process?
The different phases in infections include: Infective period. Communicability period.
Which of the following is an example of reemerging disease?
Re-emerging infectious diseases are diseases that once were major health problems globally or in a particular country, and then declined dramatically, but are again becoming health problems for a significant proportion of the population (malaria and tuberculosis are examples).
Is tuberculosis emerging or reemerging?
PIP: Tuberculosis (TB) is reemerging as a major public health problem worldwide. The emergence of multidrug resistance and the interaction between TB and HIV infection are responsible for this surge.
Which of the following factors can influence the emergence or reemergence of infectious diseases?
Factors that have contributed to these changes are population growth, migration from rural areas to cities, international air travel, poverty, wars, and destructive ecological changes due to economic development and land use.
Why is it important to understand how the emerging and re emerging diseases are transmitted?
Understanding the infectious cycle is critical in order to identify accessible targets for control strategies (Figure 4). For example, direct person-to-person transmission may be inhibited by proper hygiene and sanitary conditions as well as education.
What are four 4 factors that increase susceptibility to infection?
Multiple innate factors (e.g., age, nutritional status, genetics, immune competency, and pre-existing chronic diseases) and external variables (e.g., concurrent drug therapy) influence the overall susceptibility of a person exposed to a virus.
What are four 4 factors that influence the susceptibility of a host?
Susceptibility and response to an agent are influenced by factors such as genetic composition, nutritional and immunologic status, anatomic structure, presence of disease or medications, and psychological makeup.
What are the 3 types of infections?
What causes infections? “Germs” is another word for microorganisms or microbes that cause disease. The three major types of germs we usually hear about are bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
Is malaria a reemerging disease?
Malaria: a reemerging disease in Africa.
What are re-emerging infectious diseases?
Many specialists in infectious diseases include re-emerging diseases as a subcategory of emerging diseases. Figure 8 lists examples of re-emerging infectious diseases.
What is reemergence in public health?
Reemergence may happen because of a breakdown in public health measures for diseases that were once under control. They can also happen when new strains of known disease-causing organisms appear. Human behavior affects reemergence. For example, overuse of antibiotics has led to disease-causing organisms that are resistant to medicines.
What causes reemergence of disease?
Reemergence may happen because of a breakdown in public health measures for diseases that were once under control. They can also happen when new strains of known disease-causing organisms appear. Human behavior affects reemergence.
What is an emerging infectious disease?
“Emerging” infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range.