What complications may occur to a fetus and a child with rubella?
Complications include deafness, cataracts, heart defects, brain disorders, mental retardation, bone alterations, liver and spleen damage. Furthermore, an infant infected with rubella during pregnancy can continue to shed the virus for about a year, sometimes longer.
What complication is related to rubella?
Up to 70% of women who get rubella may experience arthritis; this is rare in children and men. In rare cases, rubella can cause serious problems, including brain infections and bleeding problems. liver or spleen damage.
What is the effect of rubella virus?
Most people who get rubella usually have a mild illness, with symptoms that can include a low-grade fever, sore throat, and a rash that starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. Rubella can cause a miscarriage or serious birth defects in a developing baby if a woman is infected while she is pregnant.
What is rubella during pregnancy?
Rubella is a contagious viral infection best known by its distinctive red rash. It’s also called German measles or three-day measles. This infection may cause mild or no symptoms in most people. However, it can cause serious problems for unborn babies whose mothers become infected during pregnancy.
What kind of birth defects does rubella cause?
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is the name give to fetal defects caused by rubella virus infection. These include eye manifestations (cataracts, glaucoma, retinitis), congenital heart defects, hearing loss, microcephaly, bone disease, mental retardation, and diabetes.
How does rubella cause fetal abnormalities?
The birth defects of CRS occur because the rubella virus impacts certain cell populations during development. Increased cell death may also cause many affected fetuses and infants to be born with lower birth weights (intrauterine growth restrictions) than the gestational norms.
How does rubella affect the organs?
The virus also can pass through a pregnant woman’s bloodstream to infect her unborn child. Babies born with congenital rubella syndrome are at risk for serious problems with their growth, thinking, heart and eyes, hearing, and liver, spleen, and bone marrow.
What birth defects arise from rubella?
What are some abnormalities of infants born with rubella?
Disease Description [1–3] Common congenital defects of CRS include cataracts, congenital heart disease, hearing impairment, and developmental delay. Infants with CRS often present with more than one of these signs but may also present with a single defect, most commonly hearing impairment.
Who is at highest risk for permanent effects resulting from rubella infection?
The highest risk of CRS is in countries where women of childbearing age do not have immunity to the disease (either through vaccination or from having had rubella). Before the introduction of the vaccine, up to 4 babies in every 1000 live births were born with CRS.
How does rubella affect neonate?
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is an illness in infants that results from maternal infection with rubella virus during pregnancy. When rubella infection occurs during early pregnancy, serious consequences–such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and a constellation of severe birth defects in infants–can result.
What organs does rubella affect?
Babies born with congenital rubella syndrome are at risk for serious problems with their growth, thinking, heart and eyes, hearing, and liver, spleen, and bone marrow.
How does rubella cause congenital heart disease?
When maternal rubella is present, the virus spreads through the placenta and in to the fetus. In the placenta, the chorionic tissues are the most affected. They experience necrosis of the epithelium and fragmentation of the small blood vessels.