What was the HMS Challenger expedition best known for?
Modern oceanography began with the Challenger Expedition between 1872 and 1876. It was the first expedition organized specifically to gather data on a wide range of ocean features, including ocean temperatures seawater chemistry, currents, marine life, and the geology of the seafloor.
What three types of samples were collected by HMS Challenger between 1872 and 1876?
At each of the 360 stations the crew measured the bottom depth, temperature at different depths, observed weather and surface ocean conditions, and collected seafloor, water, and biota samples.
What were the major contributions of the HMS Challenger to the study of oceanography How did its expedition contribute to future studies of the ocean?
Many consider it to be the first true oceanographic expedition because it yielded a wealth of information about the marine environment. Those aboard identified many organisms then new to science, and they gathered data at 362 oceanographic stations on temperature, currents, water chemistry, and ocean floor deposits.
What did the Challenger Deep discover?
In 1875, the British ship HMS Challenger set out on the first global marine research expedition. Her crew was the first to discover the Mariana Trench and, using the rather primitive equipment of a weighted sounding rope, measured its depth to be about 4,475 fathoms, or 26,850 feet.
What did the HMS Challenger measure?
Built in England’s now-defunct Woolwich Dockyard and first launched in February 1858, HMS Challenger was constructed as a wooden, steam-assisted Royal Navy corvette, or warship. It measured some 61m in length.
What kinds of new equipment and methods did the Challenger expedition bring to ocean exploration that had never been tried before?
What kinds of new equipment and methods did the Challenger expedition bring to ocean exploration that had never been tried before? Equipment Thompson installed were steam winches , cables and other equipment back instruments across the ocean bottom to take samples and make measurements .
What were the major contributions of the HMS Challenger to the study of oceanography quizlet?
The HMS Challenger was a British warship that was retrofitted as the first ever oceanographic research vessel. During its 3-year voyage, the HMS Challenger sailed around the world, collecting information about the ocean depths and collecting samples. It took 19 years to publish the results in a 50-volume set!
What is the difference between Mariana Trench and Challenger Deep?
The Challenger Deep, in the southern end of the Mariana Trench (sometimes called the Marianas Trench), is the deepest spot in the ocean.
Why is the Challenger Deep significant?
The Challenger Deep is the deepest known point of the seabed in the Earth’s hydrosphere (the oceans and seas), with a depth of 10,902 to 10,929 m (35,768–35,856 ft) by direct measurement from deep-diving submersibles, remotely operated underwater vehicles, and benthic landers and (sometimes) slightly more by sonar …
What 4 different ways do scientists explore the ocean floor?
Answer. Technologies used to explore outer space and the ocean include submersibles, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), satellites, rovers, diving/scuba gear, buoys, mega corers, water column samplers, and sonar for mapping.
Who is the only human to walk in space and reached the deepest point in the ocean?
Sullivan is now the only human who has walked in space and reached the deepest point in the ocean. She made her descent in the two-person submersible (vehicles that can be operated underwater) ‘Limiting Factor’ as part of Caladan Oceanic’s Ring of Fire Expedition.
Can Mt Everest fit in the ocean?
Challenger Deep, the deepest known point on the Earth, is located in Pacific Ocean’s Mariana Trench 36,070 feet below sea level while Earth’s tallest peak Mount Everest has an altitude of 29,029 feet above sea level. Interestingly, about 90% of all marine life live within 660 feet of the ocean surface.
What are 2 methods used in mapping the ocean floor?
There are three tools used to map the ocean floor, sonar, satellites, and submersibles. Sonar is a type of electronic depth-sounding equiptment made in the 1920’s.It is an acronym for sound navigation and ranging. Sonar is also known as echo sounding.
Who was the first woman to Mariana Trench?
astronaut Kathy Sullivan
In July 2020, former NASA shuttle astronaut Kathy Sullivan became the first woman to descend to the deepest part of the ocean in the Mariana Trench. On June 6, 2020, former astronaut Kathy Sullivan climbed into a titanium submarine and descended nearly seven miles below the surface of the Pacific Ocean.
Why was the HMS Challenger modified to conduct Oceanic Research?
The government agreed, and the HMS Challenger was modified to conduct oceanic research. Ammunition and 15 of the guns were removed from the ship and replaced with laboratories, workrooms, and storage space. The HMS Challenger used sails rather than the steam engine most of the time to allow for frequent stops when collecting data.
How many people were on the HMS Challenger?
The science and ship crew of the HMS Challenger in 1874. The original crew of 216 had dwindled to 144 by the end of the long expedition.
When was the design of the HMS Challenger published?
In 1979 a paper describing the design for Challenger was presented at an Institute of Marine Engineering conference. HMS Challenger was a unique vessel in Royal Navy service, purpose built to support deep sea operations and saturation diving.
What was the purpose of the HMS Challenger expedition?
The HMS Challenger Expedition. Those aboard identified many organisms then new to science, and they gathered data at 362 oceanographic stations on temperature, currents, water chemistry, and ocean floor deposits. The scientific results of the voyage were published in a 50-volume, 29,500-page report that took 23 years to compile.