What are the chemical properties of cerium?

What are the chemical properties of cerium?

cerium (Ce), chemical element, the most abundant of the rare-earth metals….Read a brief summary of this topic.

atomic number 58
melting point 798 °C (1,468 °F)
boiling point 3,443 °C (6,229 °F)
specific gravity 6.7704 (24 °C, or 75 °F)
oxidation states +3, +4

What are the properties and uses of cerium?

It dissolves in acids. It can burn when heated or scratched with a knife. The metal is used as a core for the carbon electrodes of arc lamps, for incandescent mantles for gas lighting. Cerium is used in aluminium and iron alloys, in stainless steel as a precipitation hardening agent, to make permanent magnets.

What does cerium oxide do?

Cerium oxide is used in glass to produce a harder, more resistant surface. It lowers the surface energy of the glass and makes it easier to clean. Cerium oxide also acts as an anti-reflective material, meaning that it works like a mirror on the inside of windshields and windows.

Is cerium oxide a semiconductor?

Cerium oxide, CeO2, is n-type semiconductor with a band gap of 2.9 eV.

Is cerium a solid liquid or gas?

Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58. Classified as a lanthanide, Cerium is a solid at room temperature.

Is cerium malleable or brittle?

Physical properties Cerium is an iron-gray metal with a melting point of 795°C (1,460°F) and a boiling point of 3,257°C (5,895°F). It is ductile and malleable.

Is cerium oxide a catalyst?

Cerium oxide (CeO2) is a highly useful rare earth oxides in manufacturing catalysis. It has been targeted in the place of diverse catalysis both as a catalyst and as a support. Ceria usually represents stable valence and lower redox ability +3 and +4 oxidation states.

Is cerium oxide a nanoparticle?

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) exhibit antioxidant properties both in vitro and in vivo. This is due to the self-regeneration of their surface, which is based on redox-cycling between 3+ and 4+ states for cerium, in response to their immediate environment.

Is cerium a heavy metal?

There are 35 metals that are of concern for us because of residential or occupational exposure, out of which 23 are heavy metals: antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, gold, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, platinum, silver, tellurium, thallium, tin, uranium, vanadium.

Is cerium paramagnetic or diamagnetic?

Magnetic Type of the elements

Chromium Antiferromagnetic Sodium
Cadmium Diamagnetic Cerium
Indium Diamagnetic Praseodymium
Tin Diamagnetic Neodymium
Antimony Diamagnetic Samarium

Why is cerium used as a catalyst?

Cerium acts as various oxide support, improving the catalytic performances via a metal-support interface and better diffusion of active metal components [3], [4]. Cerium-oxide catalysts have been projected as potential materials because of their huge oxygen storage and discharge capacity [5].

Which catalyst is used in cracking process?

In catalytic cracking solid catalysts effectively convert plastics into liquid fuel, giving lighter fractions as compared to thermal cracking. Catalysts used in this process include silica–alumina, aluminosilicate zeolite (ZSM-5), and fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), among others.

What are cerium nanoparticles?

Cerium oxide nanoparticles, nanoceria, are inorganic antioxidants that have catalytic activities which mimic those of the neuroprotective enzymes SOD and catalase. Kong et al.87 have shown that nanoceria preserves retinal morphology and prevents loss of retinal function in a rat light damage model.

Is cerium a transition metal?

The period 6 inner transition metals (lanthanides) are cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), and lutetium (Lu).

How do you make cerium oxide?

Cerium(IV) oxide is formed by the calcination of cerium oxalate or cerium hydroxide. , which is unstable and will oxidize to cerium(IV) oxide.

Why could CeO2 be a useful catalyst for oxidation?

The results exhibited that the rod-like CeO2 showed a far superior activity to the other two catalysts for CO oxidation (T90 = 228 ◦C at space velocity of 12,000 mL·gcat−1·h−1). The highly reducible oxygen species on the surface of CeO2 nanorods is considered to be the main reason.

Why are zeolites used in cracking?

Catalysts called zeolites drive cracking. These mineral-like solids of silicon, aluminium and oxygen contain orderly networks of pores, just wide enough for the hydrocarbon molecules to wriggle down. Inside a zeolite’s pores, it’s extremely acidic. This breaks up the big molecules.