What does Conotruncal mean?
Conotruncal heart defects are structural abnormalities of the cardiac outflow tract. This means that the pathway for the blood to leave the heart and circulate to the body or to the lungs is disrupted. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) Truncus Arteriosus (TA) Interrupted Aortic Arch (IAA)
What are truncal and bulbar ridges?
The bulbar and truncal ridges undergo 180-degree spiralling, resulting in the formation of the aorticopulmonary septum when they fuse. The spiralling is possibly caused by the streaming of blood from the ventricles.
What is bulbus cordis?
The bulbus cordis elongates and forms three parts- the proximal part forms the trabeculated portion of the right ventricle, the middle part forms conus cordis which is the outflow tract and the truncus arteriosus which forms the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk.
What is the difference between truncus arteriosus and conus arteriosus?
The caudal end of the bulbus cordis gives rise to the smooth parts (outflow tract) of the left and right ventricles (aortic vestibule & conus arteriosus respectively). The cranial end of the bulbus cordis (also known as the conus cordis) gives rise to the aorta and pulmonary trunk with the truncus arteriosus.
What is Conotruncal heart defect?
Summary. A congenital heart defect is a problem with the structure of the heart. It is present at birth. Congenital heart defects are the most common type of birth defect. The defects can involve the walls of the heart, the valves of the heart, and the arteries and veins near the heart.
What is Conotruncal region of the heart?
The cardiac OFT, comprised of the conus or bulbus cordis and the truncus arteriosus (together called the conotruncal region), is a rapidly remodeling structure during embryogenesis at the arterial pole of the heart, as it connects the embryonic ventricles to the aortic sac .
What are bulbar ridges?
bul·bar ridge one of two spiral subendocardial thickenings in the embryonic bulbus cordis; when they fuse, they divide the bulbus into the aorta and pulmonary artery.
What is bulbar septum?
a septum dividing the embryonic bulbus cordis and truncus arteriosus into pulmonary and aortic outflow tracts from the developing heart; the distal part of the septum is derived from the right and left endocardial cushions and so separates the pulmonary and aortic orifices; the proximal part of the septum is that …
What is the difference between a conus arteriosus and a bulbus arteriosus?
In sharks and rays (elasmobranchs), the predominant connecting vessel (conus arteriosus) is tubular and largely composed of cardiac muscle, whereas in bony fishes (teleosts), the outflow tract (bulbus arteriosus) resembles a greatly swollen blood vessel and is largely made up of elastin, collagen, and smooth muscle ( …
What is pulmonary conus?
The term “pulmonary conus” means. the first convexity in the cardiac shadow to. the left of the sternum below the shadow of. the aortic knob.
What is Conotruncal septum?
Conotruncal septum:the septum that divides the conus cordis into the outflow tracts (infundibulum of the right. ventricle [conus arteriosus] and aortic vestibule) as well as the truncus arteriosus. Ductus arteriosus: shunts blood from the left pulmonary artery to the descending aorta, by-passing the lungs.
What is the fate of bulbus cordis?
By the upgrowth of the ventricular septum the bulbus cordis is separated from the left ventricle, but remains an integral part of the right ventricle, of which it forms the infundibulum. Together, the bulbus cordis and the primitive ventricle give rise to the ventricles of the formed heart.
What is the function of bulbus arteriosus?
The bulbus arteriosus of teleost fish is a thick-walled chamber that extends between the single ventricle and the ventral aorta. The functional importance of the bulbus resides in the fact that it maintains a steady blood flow into the gill system through heart contraction.
Do humans have conus arteriosus?
The infundibulum (also known as conus arteriosus) is a conical pouch formed from the upper and left angle of the right ventricle in the chordate heart, from which the pulmonary trunk arises. It develops from the bulbus cordis….Infundibulum (heart)
What does an enlarged pulmonary trunk mean?
Pulmonary Artery Enlargement Is Associated With Right Ventricular Dysfunction and Loss of Blood Volume in Small Pulmonary Vessels in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease | Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging.
What is normal pulmonary artery size?
A pulmonary artery diameter of 3.32 cm (main pulmonary artery diameter + 2 SD) had a 58% sensitivity and 95% specificity for the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is concluded that, using unenhanced axial 10 mm CT sections, the upper limit of normal main pulmonary artery diameter is 3.32 cm.