What is Brazilian BOPE?
Batalhão de Operações Policiais Especiais (BOPE) (Portuguese: [bataˈʎɐ̃w dʒi opeɾaˈsõjs poliˈsjajs ispeˈsjajs]; literally “Special Police Operations Battalion”) or BOPE is the police tactical unit and gendarmerie of the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State (PMERJ) in Brazil.
What is a pacified favela?
The Pacifying Police Unit (Portuguese: Unidade de Polícia Pacificadora, also translated as Police Pacification Unit), abbreviated UPP, is a law enforcement and social services program pioneered in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which aims to reclaim territories, most commonly favelas, controlled by gangs of drug …
Who built Rio’s first favela?
The first favela, now known as Providência in the center of Rio de Janeiro, appeared in the late 19th century, built by soldiers who had lived under the favela trees in Bahia and had nowhere to live following the Canudos War. Some of the first settlements were called bairros africanos (African neighborhoods).
Are there police in favelas?
The police said 1,200 officers were deployed in the favela, considered a bastion of the Comando Vermelho (Yellow Command) criminal group.
How do you fix favelas?
The authorities in Rio de Janeiro have set up self-help schemes in the favelas. People are given tools and training to improve their homes. Low-interest loans may be used to help people fund these changes. People may be given legal ownership of the land they live on.
Why is it called a favela?
The term favela is first found in 19th century Portuguese dictionaries, referring to the favela tree commonly found in Bahia. After the ‘Guerra de Canudos’ (Canudos War) in Bahia (1895-1896) government soldiers, who had lived amongst the favela trees, marched to Rio de Janeiro to await their payment.
What is the favela known for?
Favelas have become synonymous with slum life. Today, there are an estimated 1,000 favelas in Rio, and they are home to about 1.5 million people, or close to 24 percent of the city’s population, according to the Catalytic Communities, an advocacy NGO.
Why are favelas built on hills?
Soldiers had camped on a hill where the thorny favela plant grows in the northeast region and made temporary housing out of shacks. When some of the soldiers returned to Rio, they settled on forested hillsides that ringed the city, waiting to be granted land that they were promised by the government.
What is the murder rate in favelas?
Inside the favelas, a variation from 22 to 44 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants is observed. Around the favelas, up to 100 m away, the rates rise considerably, varying from 48 to 129/100,000.