What is the Mullerian?
The müllerian ducts are the primordial anlage of the female reproductive tract. They differentiate to form the fallopian tubes, uterus, the uterine cervix, and the superior aspect of the vagina. A wide variety of malformations can occur when this system is disrupted.
What is Mullerian fusion?
During typical fetal development, two tube-like structures called the Müllerian ducts fuse together to create the uterus, fallopian tubes and majority of the vagina. When one of these structures does not fully develop, a malformation of the uterus or vagina occurs, and this is referred to as a Müllerian anomaly.
What is Mullerian duct abnormality?
Müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are congenital abnormalities that occur when the Müllerian ducts (paramesonephric ducts) do not develop correctly. This may be as a result of complete agenesis, defective vertical or lateral fusion, or resorption failure.
What is malaria duct?
Paramesonephric ducts (or Müllerian ducts) are paired ducts of the embryo that run down the lateral sides of the urogenital ridge and terminate at the sinus tubercle in the primitive urogenital sinus. In the female, they will develop to form the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and the upper one-third of the vagina.
What is the most common Mullerian abnormality?
Bicornuate uterus (BU): This is the most common form of müllerian anomaly. Described as a womb with two horns. The womb is not pear-shaped, instead it is shaped like a heart, with a deep indentation at the top. This means that the baby has less space to grow than in a normally shaped womb.
What is a Mullerian tumor?
A rare cancer of the uterus, ovary, or fallopian tubes.
What is Müllerian duct in female?
The Müllerian duct (MD) is the embryonic structure that develops into the female reproductive tract (FRT), including the oviduct, uterus, cervix and upper vagina. The FRT has essential functions in mammals, providing the site of fertilization, embryo implantation and fetal development.
What is Müllerian and Wolffian ducts?
The Müllerian duct gives rise to female reproductive organs, such as the oviduct and uterus. During gestation, the Wolffian duct, which generates male reproductive organs and the kidney, is formed, and the Müllerian duct then elongates caudally along the preformed Wolffian duct.
What is Paramesonephric duct?
The müllerian ducts are the progenitors of the upper female genital tract and develop into the fallopian tubes at their cranial ends and fuse to form the uterus and upper part of the vagina at their caudal ends.
What is the gold standard in diagnosing Müllerian abnormalities?
MRI is considered the gold standard in diagnosing congenital or obstructive Mullerian anomalies, such as HWW syndrome, with three-dimensional ultrasonography as a good alternative  .
How common are Mullerian anomalies?
What Is Mullerian Anomalies? Müllerian anomalies affect up to four percent of females. The anomaly is considered a ‘congenital disorder’, meaning it occurs during fetal development and is present at birth.
Is Mullerian an ovary?
Therefore, while historically documented as separate processes, we would argue that ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancers should be uniformly referred to as adenocarcinomas of Mullerian origin given their similar pathogenesis.
What is the survival rate for MMMT?
Malignant mixed mullerian tumors (MMMTs) are an aggressive form of endometrial cancer (EC) with malignant epithelial and stromal components. Although MMMTs comprise less than 5% of ECs, 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for this subtype are extremely low, ranging from 20% to 35%.
What is the difference between Wolffian duct and Müllerian duct?
The Mullerian duct is a paired embryological structure that gives rise to female reproductive organs. The Wolffian duct is a paired embryological structure that gives rise to male reproductive organs. The Mullerian duct develops into the cervix, upper one thirds of vagina, both the fallopian tubes and uterus.
What is Müllerian eminence?
Sinus tubercle (also known as sinual tubercle or Müllerian eminence) is the proliferation of endoderm induced by the paramesonephric ducts. It is located in the developing fetus between the orifices of the mesonephric ducts on the urogenital sinus.
What is the most common müllerian abnormality?
What is unilateral Amazia?
Isolated unilateral amazia: an exceptional breast anomaly Amazia is an uncommon entity with a lack of incidence information in the literature. Early diagnosis and proper treatment are essential to avoid body image complications, especially among adolescent women. Amazia is an uncommon entity with a lack of incidence information in the literature.
What is bilateral amastia?
Amastia is a rare, congenital (present at birth) condition in which a child’s breast tissue doesn’t develop. Amastia can affect one (unilateral) or both (bilateral) breasts. Children with bilateral amastia often have other birth defects.
What is amastia and how is it treated?
Amastia refers to a rare clinical anomaly in which both internal breast tissue and the visible nipple are absent on one or both sides. It affects both men and women. Amastia can be either isolated (the only medical condition) or comorbid with other syndromes, such as ectodermal dysplasia, syndactaly ( Poland’s syndrome) and lipoatrophic diabetes.
What is amastia on only one side?
Defined as amastia involving just one side. It is often seen to be associated with absence of pectoral muscle. In these cases there is amastia on both sides. It is often associated with many other congenital anomalies. 1. Guray M, Sahin AA.