What is the product obtained from Aspergillus niger?
Citric acid is obtained by the fermentation of sugar syrup by Aspergillus niger and mucor species. It is used in dyeing engraving, medicine, flavouring and preservation of food and candies.
What is produced by Aspergillus niger in food processing?
It causes a disease called “black mold” on certain fruits and vegetables such as grapes, apricots, onions, and peanuts, and is a common contaminant of food.
Why is Aspergillus niger significant?
Aspergillus niger is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and has been implicated in opportunistic infections of humans. In addition to its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, A. niger is economically important as a fermentation organism used for the production of citric acid.
What enzymes does Aspergillus niger produce?
Aspergillus niger is one of the most important microorganisms in biotechnology. It has been already used to produce extracellular enzymes such as glucose oxidase, pectinase, α-amylase and glucoamylase, organic acids, and recombinant proteins.
How does Aspergillus niger produce citric acid?
Citric acid is the most important organic acid produced in tonnage and is extensively used in food and pharmaceutical industries. It is produced mainly by submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger or Candida sp. from different sources of carbohydrates, such as molasses and starch based media.
What is Aspergillus niger fermentation extract?
Super AN is a highly concentrated blend of beneficial fungal enzymes for inclusion in pelleted animal feeds or as a top-dressed ingredient. Aspergillus niger is a source of a wide variety of industrial and agricultural enzymes including Pectinase, hemi-cellulase, beta-glucanase, endo-glucanase, cellulose, and xylanase.
How does Aspergillus niger reproduce?
Aspergillus niger is an ascomycetous fungus that is known to reproduce through asexual spores, only. Interestingly, recent genome analysis of A. niger has revealed the presence of a full complement of functional genes related to sexual reproduction .
Which fungus produces cyclosporin A?
Cyclosporine A is widely produced by submerged fermentation of aerobic fungi identified as Trichoderma polysporum but currently identified as Tolypocladium inflatum.
What is the process for making citric acid?
Citric acid is exclusively produced by fermentation with filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. The industrial production is performed using carbohydrates or agro-industrial residues as substrates by three different type processes: submerged, surface, and solid fermentations.
Which of the following organic acid is produced by using Aspergillus niger?
Aspergillus niger fermentation has provided the chief source of industrial citric acid for over 50 years.
What is the life cycle of Aspergillus?
It ends with meiosis of the synkaryons in the asci. (ii) The transitory diplophase represented by the young ascus before meiosis. These two phases sporophyte and gametophyte normally alternate in a single life cycle. Hence Aspergillus is said to exhibit alternation of generation in the life cycle.
Which microbes produce cyclosporine A and what is its use?
Cyclosporin-A is produced by the fungus Trichoderma polysporum and it is medically used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplant patients. Statin is produced by Monascus perpureus which is a yeast fungus. Medically it is used as blood cholesterol lowering agent.
What is the function of cyclosporin A?
Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is a calcineurin inhibitor, used as an immunosuppressant medication. It is a natural product. It is taken by mouth or by injection into a vein for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn’s disease, nephrotic syndrome, and in organ transplants to prevent rejection.
Which acid is not produced by Aspergillus niger?
Oxalic acid production by Aspergillus niger: an oxalate-non-producing mutant produces citric acid at pH 5 and in the presence of manganese.
What type of microbe is Aspergillus niger?
Aspergillus niger is a eukaryotic microorganism belonging to the group of filamentous fungi, which are naturally capable of secreting large amounts of proteins and metabolites.
Does Aspergillus reproduce by budding?
Creating New Life in a Cycle In the asexual cycle, haploid hyphae form foot cells which are diversions off of the hyphae. The tip of the foot cell swells, forming a conidophore vesicle. Through a series of mitotic budding events off of this vesicle, chains of haploid spores called conidia are formed.
What is the mechanism of action of cyclosporine?
Cyclosporine is a potent immunomodulatory agent with an increasing number of clinical applications. Its major mode of action is inhibition of the production of cytokines involved in the regulation of T-cell activation. In particular, cyclosporine inhibits the transcription of interleukin 2.
What fungus produces cyclosporine?
Which fungus produces Cyclosporin-A?
Why does Aspergillus niger produce citric acid?
The most important findings were the ability of A. niger to grow at a pH of around 2.5–3.5, which curbed the formation of gluconic and oxalic acid, and the increase in citric acid production with increasing sugar concentration.