What is multiple sclerosis PDF?

What is multiple sclerosis PDF?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which gradually results in severe neurological deficits. MS usually presents in early adult life when it has a major impact on family, and on vocational and social life.

What is meant by multiple sclerosis?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). In MS , the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body.

What is the most common presentation of multiple sclerosis?

A common first presentation of RRMS is with unilateral optic neuritis characterised by gradual onset monocular visual loss, pain on moving the eye and altered colour vision. Visual loss rarely progresses beyond 2 weeks from the onset.

What is MS NCBI?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by inflammation, demyelination, gliosis, and neuronal loss.[1] Pathologically, perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates, and macrophages produce degradation of myelin sheaths that surround neurons.

What causes multiple sclerosis article?

Although the etiology and pathogenesis of MS remains unclear, the present documents illustrate that the cause of MS is multifactorial and include genetic predisposition together with environmental factors such as exposure to infectious agents, vitamin deficiencies, and smoking.

What is the hallmark of multiple sclerosis?

The pathologic hallmark of multiple sclerosis is multiple focal areas of myelin loss within the CNS called plaques or lesions, accompanied by variable gliosis and inflammation and by relative axonal preservation. Active multiple sclerosis lesions are infiltrated by macrophages containing myelin debris.

What type of disease is MS?

What is multiple sclerosis (MS)? Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease affecting the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). MS occurs when the immune system attacks nerve fibers and myelin sheathing (a fatty substance which surrounds/insulates healthy nerve fibers) in the brain and spinal cord.

Why is it called multiple sclerosis?

The damaged areas develop scar tissue which gives the disease its name – multiple areas of scarring or multiple sclerosis. The cause of MS is not known, but it is believed to involve genetic susceptibility, abnormalities in the immune system and environmental factors that combine to trigger the disease.

What are usually the first symptoms of MS?

Common early signs of multiple sclerosis (MS) include:

  • vision problems.
  • tingling and numbness.
  • pains and spasms.
  • weakness or fatigue.
  • balance problems or dizziness.
  • bladder issues.
  • sexual dysfunction.
  • cognitive problems.

What is the epidemiology of MS?

MS affects approximately 400,000 people in the United States and 2.5 million worldwide. More than 200 people are diagnosed with MS each week in the United States. MS typically begins between the ages of 20 and 40 years and it is the leading cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults.

How do you diagnose MS?

No one test can provide a definitive MS diagnosis. To understand what’s causing symptoms, your healthcare provider will do a physical exam. You may also have blood tests and imaging tests, such as MRI. An MRI looks for evidence of lesions (areas of damage) in the brain or spinal cord that indicate multiple sclerosis.

Who is at risk for multiple sclerosis?

The chances of getting MS are greater in people who have many risk factors. MS is more common in people between the ages of 16 and 40. This is when MS is most often found. It is also more common in people of European descent.

What is the best treatment for multiple sclerosis?

Ocrelizumab (Ocrevus). This humanized monoclonal antibody medication is the only DMT approved by the FDA to treat both the relapse-remitting and primary-progressive forms of MS . Clinical trials showed that it reduced relapse rate in relapsing disease and slowed worsening of disability in both forms of the disease.

What are the 4 types of multiple sclerosis?

Four disease courses have been identified in multiple sclerosis: clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), primary progressive MS (PPMS), and secondary progressive MS (SPMS).

How to tell if you have multiple sclerosis?

Neurological examination. Your neurologist will look for abnormalities,changes or weakness in your vision,eye movements,hand or leg strength,balance and co-ordination,speech and reflexes.

  • MRI scan.
  • Evoked potential test.
  • Lumbar puncture.
  • Blood tests.
  • What is the best MS treatment?

    We’re looking back over some of her memorable columns, including this letter about a man who felt the implications of his MS would mean no woman would I suffer from urinary incontinence; despite medical treatment for it, I have to use adult nappies.

    Will MS ever be cured?

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be an autoimmune disease that destroys the protective fatty coating (myelin sheath) that insulates and covers and the nerves (demyelination). There is no cure for MS, and the life expectancy is about the same as the general population unless complications occur. The prognosis for MS depends upon the type of MS and the person’s health.

    What are three symptoms of multiple sclerosis?

    Numbness or tingling in your hands and feet

  • Muscle weakness
  • Vision issues such as blurry vision,double vision,and loss of peripheral vision
  • Balance problems
  • Cognitive impairment like memory impairment,difficulty with concentration,and confusion
  • Involuntary movement of your extremities (e.g.,shaking or jerking)
  • Weak endurance for daily activities